Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977).
An implicit technology of generalization.
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,
Traditionally, discrimination has been understood as an active
process, and a technology of its procedures has been developed
and practiced extensively. Generalization, by contrast, has been
considered the natural result of failing to practice a
discrimination technology adequately, and thus has remained a
passive concept almost devoid of a technology. But,
generalization is equally deserving of an active
conceptualization and technology. This review summarizes the
structure of the generalization literature and its implicit
embryonic technology, categorizing studies designed to assess or
program generalization according to nine general headings: Train
and Hope; Sequential Modification; Introduce to Natural
Maintaining Contingencies; Train Sufficient Exemplars; Train
Loosely; Use Indiscriminable Contingencies; Program Common
Stimuli; Mediate Generalization; and Train To Generalize.